• 14 02
    Excessive or repetitive fear play a significant role in the development of anxiety disorders, with the amygdala serving as the central locus for fear processing. Clinical research has demonstrated that individuals with bilateral amygdala damage are still capable of experiencing fear, indicating the amygdala may not be absolutely required for fear. To date, the neural mechanisms underlying fear that are independent of the amygdala are still poorly understood.On February 12th, Prof. LI Xiao-Ming and his team from the Zhejiang University School of Medicine published an article entitled A molecularly defined amygdala-independent tetra-synaptic forebrain-to-hindbrain pathway for odor-driven innate fear and anxiety on Nature Neuroscience. The study revealed the significant role of the main olfactory bulb → dorsal peduncular cortex → lateral parabrachial nucleus → parasubthalamic nucleus pathway in fear and anxiety (Figure 1).Figure 1 The schematic diagram of the main olfactory bulb → dorsal peduncular cortex → lateral parabrachial nucleus → parasubthalamic nucleus pathway Olfaction serves as a common sensory modality that elicits innate fear in animals. Through the use of 2,4,5-trimethyl-3-thiazoline (TMT), a compound present in fox feces, which is a stimulus with fear-eliciting properties for rodents, the research team observed a notable decrease in aversive and freezing behaviors triggered by TMT in mice, accompanied by the apoptosis of neurons in the cortical amygdala and medial amygdala. However, this kind of apoptosis did not have a significant impact on TMT-induced escape behavior. Therefore the team focused on finding the specific brain region that mediate the olfaction-evoked escape behavior.In the subsequent experiments, Dr. WANG Hao, the first author of the study, characterized neuronal activity as reflected in Fos expression in response to TMT. He observed a notable elevation in Fos expression in the dorsal peduncular cortex (DP), which receives distinct inputs from the main olfactory bulb (MOB). In addition, the MOB-DP neural circuit exhibits markedly heightened activity following TMT stimulation (Figure 2).Figure 2The MOB-DP neural circuit is involved in TMT-induced innate fear."The role of DP in olfaction-evoked innate fear was investigated by inhibiting DP neurons in mice using an apoptosis virus, which resulted in the absence of obvious escape behavior in response to TMT stimulation and a significant reduction in aversive and freezing behaviors. Conversely, activating DP neurons using optogenetics induced escape behavior in mice, along with observable fear-like reactions such as dilated pupils and decreased heart rate," explained Dr. WANG Hao.Concurrently, the team integrated optogenetic inhibition of DP neuron function with localized amygdala damage in mice. They observed that the combination of localized amygdala damage and DP inhibition resulted in a significant reduction of escape behavior induced by TMT in mice, as well as a further decrease in aversive and freezing behaviors. "Notably, the mitral/tufted cells projecting to DP and the cortical amygdala are two distinct groups of neurons. The aforementioned functional and structural observations suggest that DP is capable of autonomously mediating olfaction-evoked innate fear bypasses the amygdala,” stated Dr. WANG Qinng, co-first author of the study. Consequently, following input from the main olfactory bulb, how does the DP convey the fear response elicited by predator odor?Combining virus tracing and patch-clamp electrophysiology, the team have discovered that DP forms excitatory synaptic connections with cholecystokinin (Cck) positive neurons in the superficial lateral parabrachial nucleus (PBNsl), which then project to tachykinin 1 (Tac1) positive neurons in the parasubthalamic nucleus (PSTh). This results in the formation of a molecularly defined tetra-synaptic pathway: MOBSlc17a7+ → DPCamk2a+ → anterior PBNslCck+ → PSThTac1+.In order to investigate whether the tetra-synaptic pathway participate in olfaction-evoked innate fear, PhD candidates CUI Liuzhe  and FENG Xiaoyang delved deeper into the functional properties of the neural circuit. Their investigations revealed that this neural circuit exhibits significant activation during TMT-induced escape behavior (Figure 3). Furthermore, optogenetic inhibition of this pathway markedly diminishes mouse escape behavior and ameliorates fear-related responses. Even in mice with concurrent damage to the cortex and medial amygdala, activation of this pathway remains capable of inducing mouse escape behavior and replicating autonomic nervous response of innate fear. These findings suggest that the identified forebrain-to-hindbrain neural circuit can autonomously regulate TMT-induced innate fear independent of amygdala.Figure 3: Single-cell calcium imaging results of anterior PBNslCck+ positive neurons when TMT is close to the mouse's nose.As a consequence of excessive or repetitive fear contributing to fear-related disorders, such as anxiety, the research team conducted a more in-depth examination of the pathway’s function in anxiety. Dr. WANG Hao stated, “We observed that continuous optogenetic activation of this pathway (1h per day for three days) resulted in markedly observable anxiety-like behaviors in mice. Furthermore, the inhibition of this pathway led to a significant reversal of the anxiety-like behavior after 2h of acute restrain stress.”This study revealed a tetra-synaptic neural circuit of the main olfactory bulb → dorsal peduncular cortex → lateral parabrachial nucleus → parasubthalamic nucleus, and demonstrated that this pathway can regulate olfaction-evoked innate fear and anxiety bypasses the amygdala. Prof. LI Xiao-Ming, the corresponding author of the article, believes that this research not only expands our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying fear and anxiety but also provides new insights into the pathogenesis of mental disorders.
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  • 11 01
    Social behaviors such as social interaction, recognition and memory are critical for daily life of animals including human beings, and social deficits including social withdraw, anxiety and isolation are closely associated with psychological or neurological disorders1. Therefore, it is important to elucidate the mechanisms of social behaviors.  It has been well known that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a social hub in the brain2, and recent studies demonstrate that hippocampal CA2 pyramidal neurons (PNs) play important roles in social recognition memory3. Binggui Sun’s laboratory in Zhejiang University School of Brain Science and Brain Medicine published a paper in PNAS entitled “Efr3b is essential in social recognition by regulating the excitability of CA2 pyramidal neurons”, providing new insights into the association of CA2 PNs and social behaviors.Efr3 (Eighty-five requiring 3) is the mammalian and yeast homologue of the drosophila rolling blackout (RBO). Previous studies have shown that RBO/Efr3 is important in terms of the phospholipid metabolism at the plasma membrane4. Efr3 includes Efr3a and Efr3b in mammalian cells. Although both Efr3a and Efr3b are highly expressed in the brain, their physiological functions in the brain are largely unknown. We reported previously that deficiency of Efr3a led to increased expression of BDNF and it’s receptor, TrkB5. In the present study, our data of RNAscope in situ hybridization showed that the mRNA of Efr3b was widely expressed in the brain and highly enriched in the hippocampal CA2/CA3 areas. We crossed Nestin-cre mice with Efr3bf/f mice to specifically delete Efr3b in neural cells. Behavioral tests revealed that deficiency of Efr3b in neural cells resulted in impaired social novelty recognition but did not affect the spatial learning and memory, anxiety, fear memory, social interaction and olfactory functions of mice. These phenotypes are very similar with the behaviors of mice after specific inhibition of CA2 PNs reported in a previous study3. Our electrophysiological recordings also showed that the excitability of CA2 PNs was significantly reduced in mice of Efr3b deficiency, suggesting that ablating Efr3b may affect the excitability of CA2 PNs and then impairs the ability of social novelty recognition of mice. To further assess the functions of Efr3b, we specifically knocked down the expression of Efr3b in CA2 PNs via RNAi. We found that reducing Efr3b in CA2 PNs decreased the excitability of CA2 PNs and impaired the social novelty recognition of mice. Interestingly, restoring the expression of Efr3b in CA2 PNs increased their excitability and improved the ability of social novelty recognition in Efr3b-deficient mice. Furthermore, chemogenetic activation of CA2 PNs also improved the social novelty recognition of Efr3b-deficient mice. Collectively, these data indicate that Efr3b is essential in social recognition by maintaining the excitability of CA2 PNs, and deficiency or dysfunction of Efr3b may account for relevant disorders associated with social deficits. Dr. Binggui Sun of Zhejiang University School of Brain Science and Brain Medicine is the leading corresponding author and Drs. Fude Huang and Xuekun Li are co-corresponding authors. Drs. Xiaojie Wei and Jing Wang are the co-first authors of this paper. Yiping Zhang, Enlu Yang and Qi Qian in Binggui Sun’s lab also contribute to this study. This work was supported by grants from National Key Research and Development Program of China (2021YFA1101701, 2019YFA0110103), National Natural Science Foundation of China (31871025, 32071031, 32271028), Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (LZ19C090001), and the Non-profit Central Research Institute Fund of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (2023-PT310-01). References1.         Kennedy DP, Adolphs R. The social brain in psychiatric and neurological disorders. Trends Cogn. Sci. 2012, 16: 559-572.2.         Apps MA, et al. The anterior cingulate gyrus and social cognition: tracking the motivation of others. Neuron 2016, 90: 692-707.3.         Hitti FL, Siegelbaum SA. The hippocampal CA2 region is essential for social memory. Nature 2014, 508: 88-92.4.         Baird D, et al. Assembly of the PtdIns 4-kinase Stt4 complex at the plasma membrane requires Ypp1 and Efr3. J Cell Biol 2008, 183: 1061-1074.5.         Qian Q, et al. Brain-specific ablation of Efr3a promotes adult hippocampal neurogenesis via the brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway. FASEB J 2017, 31:2104-2113. 
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  • 18 12
    The joint research team led by Prof. Xiao-Ming Li and Prof. Yan Zhang has recently published an article entitled Snapshot of the cannabinoid receptor 1–arrestin complex unravels the biased signaling mechanism on Cell online on Dec 14th, 2023. Addressing the long-standing Cannabis problem, an oddity that has vexed scientists for decades, this research achieved a breakthrough by unraveling signaling bias mechanism toward cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), facilitating safer synthetic cannabinoid targeting CB1.Over the last ten years, the research team led by Prof. Xiao-Ming Li has been dedicated to identifying key target molecules CB1 in nervous system diseases and developing corresponding treatment strategies, thereby rendering CB1 a promising therapeutic target for pain relief, anti-anxiety, and anti-depression treatment.Cannabis activates CB1, which elicits analgesic and emotion regulation benefits, along with adverse effects, via Gi and β-arrestin signaling pathways. However, the lack of understanding of the mechanism of β-arrestin1 (βarr1) coupling and signaling bias has hindered drug development targeting CB1.Prof. Yan Zhang and his team have been devoted to studying the signaling transduction mechanisms of GPCR in major diseases and have also made substantial contributions to the advancement and establishment of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM)-based GPCR pharmacology. Prof. Xiao-Ming Li, Prof. Yan Zhang and their colleagues have cooperated to determine the 3.1 Å cryo-EM structure of the CB1–βarr1 complex. The availability of high-resolution map facilitates the accurate determination of the binding features of ligand in the CB1–βarr1 structure and reveals notable differences in the transducer pocket and ligand-binding site compared with the Gi-protein complex, a task that has been unachieved in most GPCR–βarr1 complexes characterized at lower resolutions. βarr1 occupies a wider transducer pocket promoting substantial outward movement of the TM6 and distinctive twin toggle switch rearrangements, whereas FUB adopts a different pose inserting more deeply than the Gi-coupled state, suggesting the allosteric correlation between the orthosteric binding pocket and the partner protein site.Taken together, the joint labs led by Professors Li and Zhang have pioneered studies of cannabinoid receptors. Furthermore, this research not only proposes a comprehensive model for the molecular mechanism of signaling bias, but also builds a solid foundation for the development of safer synthetic cannabinoids and the clinical application for the CB1 compounds in treating neurological and psychiatric disorders.Website:
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  • 02 11
       The research team led by Prof. Hao Wang has recently published an article titled “Neural adaption in midbrain GABAergic cells contributes to high-fat-diet induced obesity” in Science Advances.In modern society, high-calorie food is readily available and easily accessible, leading to a steady increase in the incidence of obesity. Obesity, in turn, contributes to the rise of other related diseases such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes, placing a significant burden to both society and families. Consequently, obesity has emerged as a pressing public health concern worldwide, with limited treatment options.While previous studies have demonstrated that weight control can be achieved through modifications in dietary structure and lifestyle habits, it is often observed that individuals in this population tend to regain weight within five years. This phenomenon may be attributed to the impact of high-calorie foods, which not only influence body weight and metabolism, but also induce irreversible changes in the central nervous system. To delve deeper into this issue, Professor Hao Wang and his team from Zhejiang University’s School of Brain Science and Brain Medicine conducted a research study entitled “Neural adaption in midbrain GABAergic cells contributes to high-fat-diet induced obesity”, which was published in Science Advances. The study discussed the neural adaptations observed in midbrain GABAergic cells as a result of high-fat-diet (HFD) induced obesity.Professor Hao Wang's research team has been dedicated to investigating the neural circuit mechanisms involved in regulating energy metabolic homeostasis. In their previous work published in Cell Reports (2019), they made a significant discovery that GABAergic neurons in the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey (vlPAG) region possess an appetite-suppressing effect.In their current study, the team utilized a chemogenetic approach to activate vlPAG GABAergic neurons and observed a reversal of the obesity phenotype in high-fat-diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. This rescue effect was achieved by reducing 24-hour food intake, increasing energy metabolism levels, and inducing browning of adipose tissue.Through the use of in vivo fiber-photometry calcium imaging, the researchers discovered that calcium signals originating from vlPAG GABAergic neurons are suppressed during food intake. Notably, these neurons exhibited stronger suppression in DIO mice. Further electrophysiological recordings provided insights into the mechanisms underlying these observations. The reduced excitability of the "food-suppressed" neurons in obese mice was found to be a result of increased presynaptic inhibitory inputs and a decrease in intrinsic excitability of the neurons themselves. Consequently, chronic high-fat food intake leads to long-term inhibition of these "food-suppressor" neurons, ultimately contributing to increased food intake and obesity.The team further employed single-cell nuclear transcriptome sequencing technology to conduct a comprehensive analysis of gene expression changes in GABAergic neurons within the vlPAG of obese mice, comparing them with control mice. They identified a crucial gene called CACNA2D1, which exhibited significantly reduced expression levels in obese mice. To investigate the potential role of CACNA2D1, the team performed AAV-overexpression of CACNA2D1 in the vlPAG of obese mice. Remarkably, this intervention led to the rescue of the obesity phenotype observed in DIO mice. The rescue effect was achieved by reducing food intake and promoting adipose tissue browning. Additionally, the restoration of CACNA2D1 expression resulted in the recovery of excitability in the "food-suppressor" neurons located in the vlPAG. These findings suggest that CACNA2D1 holds promise as a potential target for the treatment of stubborn obesity.  In summary, Prof. Hao Wang's team found that the "food-suppressor" neurons in the vlPAG are involved in the regulation of energy balance and help maintain body weight homeostasis. However, long-term high-fat food intake will cause these "food-suppressor" neurons to go on strike, which makes the animals unable to stop eating high-fat food, and the vicious cycle of excessive food intake will continue. CACNA2D1 may be a potential target for the treatment of recalcitrant obesity.GABAergic neurons in the periaqueductal grey regulate weight metabolic homeostasis. Professor Hao Wang from the School of Brain Science and Brain Medicine at Zhejiang University served as the corresponding author, while Dr. Xiaomeng Wang and Dr. Xiaotong Wu were the co-first authors of this paper. The study received support from Professor Shumin Duan, Professor Xiaoming Li, Professor Yudong Zhou, Professor Chen Li, Professor Han Xu, Professor Jiadong Chen, Professor Wei Gong, Professor Fang Guo, and Professor Ruimao Zheng. Additionally, Dr. Bingwei Wang, along with PhD students Hao Wu and Hanyang Xiao, made significant contributions to this research. Funding for this study was provided by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and Boehringer Ingelheim in Germany.
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  • 19 10
    The research team led by Prof. Hailan Hu has recently published an article titled Sustained Antidepressant Effect of Ketamine through NMDAR Trapping in the LHb on Nature online on Oct 18th, 2023. This research revealed ketamine trapped in NMDAR to mediate the mechanism of the sustained antidepressant effects of ketamine.The use-dependent trapping properties of ketamine for NMDAR are the essence of its sustained antidepressant effects. Ketamine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, has revolutionized the treatment of depression because of its potent, rapid and sustained antidepressant effects. Although the elimination half-life of ketamine is only 13 min in mice, its antidepressant activities can last for at least 24 h. This large discrepancy poses an interesting basic biological question and has strong clinical implications. Here we demonstrate that after a single systemic injection, ketamine continues to suppress burst firing and block NMDARs in the lateral habenula (LHb) for up to 24 h. This long inhibition of NMDARs is not due to endocytosis but depends on the use-dependent trapping of ketamine in NMDARs. The rate of untrapping is regulated by neural activity. Harnessing the dynamic equilibrium of ketamine–NMDAR interactions by activating the LHb and opening local NMDARs at different plasma ketamine concentrations, we were able to either shorten or prolong the antidepressant effects of ketamine in vivo. These results provide new insights into the causal mechanisms of the sustained antidepressant effects of ketamine. The ability to modulate the duration of ketamine action based on the biophysical properties of ketamine–NMDAR interactions opens up new opportunities for the therapeutic use of ketamine.  Activating LHb bidirectionally modulates the duration of the ketamine antidepressant effect  Website: HAILAN HU'S RESEARCH GROUP: For social animals, emotions and health are regulated by various social behaviors. Hailan Hu's group is dedicated to studying the neural basis and plasticity mechanisms of emotion and social behavior. They use cutting-edge techniques including imaging, electrophysiology (both in vitro and in vivo), molecular genetics, and optogenetics to conduct deep analysis of emotion- and social behaviors- and their related neural circuits.  
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  • 03 10
    The research team led by Prof. Hailan Hu has recently published an article titled Stress Relief as a Natural Resilience Mechanism against Depression-like Behaviors on Neuron online on Sep 29th, 2023. This research discovered relief as a natural resilience mechanism against depression, and deconstructed the neural circuit mechanisms underlying relief.Unraveling relief as a homeostatic defense mechanism for mood regulation and clarifying the underlying neural circuit mechanismRelief, the appetitive state after the termination of aversive stimuli, is evolutionarily conserved. The inherent opponency in the valence between stress and relief raises the intriguing possibility that relief may counteract the detrimental effects of stress, playing a role in stress resilience. However, such a possibility has not been tested experimentally. Understanding the behavioral role of this well-conserved phenomenon and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms are open and important questions.Based on the correlative discovery that relief magnitude strongly correlates with resilience level to depression, researchers further revealed that blocking stress relief causes vulnerability to depression-like behaviors, whereas natural rewards supplied shortly after stress promotes resilience. Stress relief is mediated by reward-related mesolimbic dopamine neurons, which show minute-long, persistent activation after stress termination. Circuitry-wise, activation or inhibition of circuits downstream of the ventral tegmental area during the transient relief period bi-directionally regulates depression resilience. These results reveal an evolutionary function of stress relief in depression resilience, and identify the neural substrate mediating this effect. Importantly, our data suggest a behavioral strategy of augmenting positive valence of stress relief with natural rewards to prevent depression.Website: Physiological utility of relief and underlying dopaminergic circuit mechanisms
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  • 12 09
    The research team led by Prof. Xiao-Ming Li has recently published an article titled Distinct Circuits from Central Lateral Amygdala to Ventral Part of Bed Nucleus of Stria Terminalis Regulate Different Fear Memory in Biological Psychiatry on Sep 5th, Beijing time.This research established a functional role for distinct central lateral amygdala to ventral part of stria terminalis circuits in the differential regulation and appropriate maintenance of fear.The ability to differentiate stimuli predicting fear is critical for survival, however, the underlying molecular and circuit mechanisms remain poorly understood. This work identified the projections from central lateral amygdala (CeL) protein kinase C δ (PKCδ) positive neurons and somatostatin (SST) positive neurons to the ventral part of bed nucleus of stria terminalis (vBNST) GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. Prolonged optogenetic activation or inhibition of PKCδCeL-vBNST pathway specifically reduced context fear memory, whereas SSTCeL-vBNST pathway mainly reduced tone fear memory. Intriguingly, optogenetic manipulation of vBNST neurons received the projection from PKCδCeL exerted bidirectional regulation of context fear, whereas manipulation of vBNST neurons received the projection from SSTCeL neurons could bidirectionally regulate both context and tone fear memory. The presence of δ and κ opioid receptor protein expression within the CeL-vBNST circuits potentially accounted for the discrepancy between prolonged activation of GABAergic circuits and inhibition of downstream vBNST neurons. Finally, administration of an opioid receptor antagonist cocktail on the PKCδCeL-vBNST or SSTCeL-vBNST pathway successfully restored context or tone fear memory reduction induced by prolonged activation of the circuits. This study provides the first evidence that distinct extended amygdala circuits participated in differently regulating fear memory, which can pave the way for an innovative approach to drug development for a range of fear-related syndromes.Pro. Xiao-Ming Li from Zhejiang University School of Medicine is the main corresponding author. Dr Yi Zhu, PhD candidates Shi-Ze Xie and Ai-Bing Peng are the first authors. This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, STI2030-Major Projects, Key-Area Research and Development Program of Guangdong Province, Key R&D Program of Zhejiang Province, Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences, Innovative and Entrepreneur Team of Zhejiang for 2020 Biomarker-Driven Basic and Translational Research on Major Brain Diseases and the fellowship of China Postdoctoral Science Foundation.
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  • 27 07
    The research team led by Prof. Hongbin Yang has recently published an article titled Dopamine Release and Negative Valence Gated by Inhibitory Neurons in the Laterodorsal Tegmental Nucleus in Neuron on July 26, 2023, Beijing time. This research uncovered separate GABAergic subpopulations in a single brainstem nucleus that relay unpleasant stimuli to the mesolimbic DA system through direct and indirect projections, which is critical for establishing a circuit-level understanding of how negative valence is encoded in the mammalian brain. GABAergic neurons in the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDTGABA) encode aversion by directly inhibiting mesolimbic dopamine (DA). Yet, the detailed cellular and circuit mechanisms by which these cells relay unpleasant stimuli to DA neurons and regulate behavioral output remain largely unclear. Here, this research shows that LDTGABA neurons bidirectionally respond to rewarding and aversive stimuli in mice. Activation of LDTGABA neurons promotes aversion and reduces DA release in the lateral nucleus accumbens. Furthermore, this research identified two molecularly distinct LDTGABA cell populations. Somatostatin-expressing (Sst+) LDTGABA neurons indirectly regulate the mesolimbic DA system by disinhibiting excitatory hypothalamic neurons. In contrast, Reelin-expressing LDTGABA neurons directly inhibit downstream DA neurons.  Prof. Hongbin Yang from Zhejiang University MOE Frontier Science Center for Brain Science & Brain-Machine Integration is the corresponding author. Yonglan Du, Siyao Zhou, Chenyan Ma and Hui Chen are co-first authors. Ana Du, Guochuang Deng, Yige Liu also made significant contributions. This research was strongly supported by Prof. Shumin Duan and Prof. Lammel. This work was supported by grants from the STI2030-Major Projects, National Natural Science Foundation of China, NSFC-Guangdong Joint Fund-U20A6005, Key R&D Program of Zhejiang province, Fund for Medical Science and Key R&D Program of Guangdong Province, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities. 原文链接:
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    • Speaker:Yang He

      Institution:Baylor College of Medicine

      Time:2023.12.14 10:00AM

      Locatiom:Meeting Room 205

      Deciphering Obesity: The Role of Serotonin 2C Receptor

    • Speaker:Yangang Sun

      Institution:Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelli

      Time:2023.12.15 10:00AM

      Locatiom:Meeting Room 205

      Functional and structural wiring diagram for pain and itch

    • Speaker:Ronggui Hu

      Institution:Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science

      Time:2023.10.26 10:30AM

      Locatiom:Meeting Room 205

      Ubiquitin and Retinoic Acid (RA) Signaling in Human Autism Spect...

    • Speaker:Liping Wang

      Institution:Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology

      Time:2023.10.17 1:00PM

      Locatiom:Meeting Room Fulou

      Digitizing the study of neural circuits and naturalistic mouse beh...

    • Speaker:Kexin Yuan

      Institution:Tsinghua University

      Time:2023.10.12 10:00AM

      Locatiom:Meeting Room 205

      Unravelling the Connectivity, Function and Working Mechanisms of ...

    • Speaker:Rurong Ji

      Institution:Duke University

      Time:2023.10.11 9:00AM

      Locatiom:Meeting Room 205

      Regulation of pain, anesthesia, and cognition by immune checkpoint...

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        School of Brain Science and Brain Medicine Zhejiang University

        The School of Brain Science and Brain Medicine, devoted to the study of neuroscience and neuromedicine, was founded in October 2019. As the first school focusing on brain science and brain medicine in Chin... 【More】